Intestinal parasites in goats (Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758) in Bhaktapur, Nepal


  • Sonisha Prajapati Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Janak Raj Subedi Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Tirth Ghimire Animal Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal; Department of Zoology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal



concomitance, goats, gastrointestinal parasites, prevalence


The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats of Suryabinayak Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal. A total of 300 faecal samples of goats were collected from the study area from July to August 2021 and subjected to direct smear, sedimentation, and flotation techniques for coprological examination. The study revealed that 86% of samples were positive for GI parasites with 15 genera, including six genera of protozoan, and nine genera of helminths. Age-dependent prevalence of helminth parasites was higher in adult goats (75%) than that young ones. Single infection was recorded 31.01%, double was 35.27%, and multiple was 33.72%. Training on goat rearing, proper management of goat farms, awareness on GI diseases, and their control can help the owners increase productivity.


MoAD. 2014. Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS), 2014. Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal: Retrieved from

MoAD. 2020. Statistical information on Nepalese agriculture 2075/76 [2018/19]. Retrieved from 08/publication-1595229368881-0dc12.pdf

Ghimire S.C. 1992. The role of small ruminants in sustainable livestock production in the mountain agro-ecosystem of Nepal. (Ed. J.B. Abington). FAO animal production and health paper 105: Retrieved from

Vigne J.D. 2011. The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: a major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere. Comptes Rendus Biologies 334(3): 171–181.

Zeuner F.E. 1963. A history of domesticated animals. London: Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.

Devendra C. 1998. Indigenous goat genetic resources: potential importance in sustainable agriculture. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Global Conference on Conservation of Domestic Animals and Genetic Resources, 17–21 August 1998, Nepal: 16–22.

Mustafa M., Islam M., Rahman M. 2022. Epidemiological investigation of gastrointestinal (GI) parasite at BAPARD Cattle Farm, Gopalganj in Bangladesh. International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research (IJREH) 6(2): 8–16.

Fentahun T. 2020. Systematic review on gastrointestinal helminths of domestic ruminants in Ethiopia. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research 10(5): 216–230.

Ghimire T.R., Adhikari R.B., Bhattarai N. 2021. Diversity and prevalence of Eimeria species in goats of Nepal. Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society 72(4): 3299–3306.

Ghimire T.R., Bhattarai N. 2019. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of goats in a goat market in Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 43(4): 686–695.

Ruiz A., González J., Rodríguez E., Martín S., Hernández Y., Almeida R., Molina J. 2006. Influence of climatic and management factors on Eimeria infections in goats from semi‐arid zones. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 53(8): 399–402.

Emiru B., Amede Y., Tigre W., Feyera T., Deressa B. 2013. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants in Gechi District, Southwest Ethiopia. Advances in Biological Research 7(5): 169–174.

Silvestre A., Chartier C., Sauve C., Cabaret J. 2000. Relationship between helminth species diversity, intensity of infection and breeding management in dairy goats. Veterinary Parasitology 94(1–2): 91–105.

Khakural G.P. 2003. Surveillance of goat diseases in the Western Hills of Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 5(1): 37–40.

Perry B.D., Randolph T.F., McDermott J.J., Sones K.R., Thornton P.K. 2002. Investing in animal health research to alleviate poverty. Nairobi, Kenya.

Hayat C., Hussain S., Iqbal Z., Hayat B., Akhtar M. 1996. Effect of parasitic nematodes on haematology and productivity of sheep. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 16(2): 81–83.

Hailelul N. 2002. Study on prevalence of GIT helminthes of small ruminants in and around Wolayta Soddo, southern Ethiopia. DVM Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

Adhikari K., Rana H.B., Kaphle K., Khanal T., Raut R. 2017. Prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in goats of Western Chitwan of Nepal. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 5(3): 321–325.

Adhikari R.B., Adhikari Dhakal M., Ghimire T.R. 2022. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758) reared under captive and semicaptive conditions in Ratnanagar, Chitwan, Nepal. Annals of Parasitology 68(4): 701–713.

Adhikari R.B., Ghimire T.R. 2021. A case study of multiple parasitisms in a calf buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Agricultural Science Digest-A Research Journal 41: 237–241.

Thapa Magar K., Ghimire T.R. 2023. Intestinal parasites in the fecal samples of male buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) in Gorkha, Nepal. International Journal of Medical Parasitology and Epidemiology X Sciences 4(2): 45–49.

Zajac A.M., Conboy G.A., Little S.E., Reichard M.V. 2021. Veterinary clinical parasitology. 9th ed. John Wiley & Sons.

Soulsby E. 1982. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. 10 Greycoat Place: Bailliere Tindall.

Hassan N.M., Farag T.K., Abu El Ezz N.M., Abou- Zeina H.A. 2019. Prevalence assessment of gastrointestinal parasitic infections among goats in Giza Governorate, Egypt. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 43(1): 1–7.

Sorathiya L.M., Fulsoundar A.B., Rao T.K.S., Kumar N. 2017. Prevalence and risk factors for gastrointestinal parasitism in traditionally maintained goat flocks of South Gujarat. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 41(1): 137–141.

Omar A.I., Dey A.R., Alam M.B.B., Mondal M.M.H., Khan M.Y.A.,Faruque M.O. 2021. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal parasite infection under natural grazing condition in black bengal goat of Bangladesh. International Journal for Asian Contemporary Research 1(II): 63–72.

Ruhoollah Khan W., Al-Jabr O., Khan T., Khan A., El-Ghareeb W., Aguilar-Marcelino L., Hussein E., Alhimaidi A., Swelum A. 2021. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite in small ruminants of District Dir Upper Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology 83: e248978.

Dey A.R., Begum N., Anisuzzaman, Islam M.T., Alam M.Z. 2022. A large‐scale epidemiological investigation on trematode infections in small ruminants in Bangladesh. Veterinary Medicine and Science 8: 1219–1228.

Bihaqi S., Allaie I., Banday M., Wani Z., Shahardar R. 2017. Prevalence of caprine GI helminths in temperate areas of Jammu & Kashmir. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 41(3): 843–849.

Azrul L., Poungpong K., Jittapalapong S., Prasanpanich S. 2017. Descriptive prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats from small farms in Bangkok and vicinity and the associated risk factors. Annual Research & Review in Biology 16(2): 1–7.

Das M., Laha R., Goswami A., Sen A. 2017. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India. Veterinary World 10(1): 81–85.

Terefe D., Demissie D., Beyene D., Haile S. 2012. A prevalence study of internal parasites infecting Boer goats at Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 4(4): 12–16.

Dey A.R., Begum N., Alim M.A., Malakar S., Islam M.T., Alam M.Z. 2020. Gastrointestinal nematodes in goats in Bangladesh: a large-scale epidemiological study on the prevalence and risk factors. Parasite Epidemiology and Control 9: e00146.

Jegede O.C., Adejoh A.A., Obeta S.S., Olayemi O.D. 2015. Gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and goats in Gwagwalada Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria; with a special reference to sex, breed and age. Alexandria Journal for Veterinary Sciences 46(1): 170–176.

Islam M.S., Hossain M.S., Dey A.R., Alim M.A., Akter S., Alam M.Z. 2017. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 4(4): 356–362.

Sohail M., Nauman-ul-Islam M., Shah S.S.A., Shah I.A., Raziq A., Khan M.I. 2017. Incidence of gastrointestinal parasites in beetal goats at District Peshawar, Pakistan. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 5(5): 205–207.

Hashemnia M., Khodakaram-Tafti A., Razavi S.M., Nazifi S. 2012. Experimental caprine coccidiosis caused by Eimeria arloingi: morphopathologic and electron microscopic studies. Veterinary Research Communications 36(1): 47–55.

Kheirandish R., Nourollahi-Fard S.R., Yadegari Z. 2014. Prevalence and pathology of coccidiosis in goats in southeastern Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 38(1): 27–31.

Sharma D.K., Agrawal N., Mandal A., Nigam P., Bhushan S. 2009. Coccidia and gastrointestinal nematode infections in semi-intensively managed Jakhrana goats of semi-arid region of India. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 11(1): 135–139.

Kumsa B., Tolera A., Nurfeta A. 2010. Comparative efficacy of seven brands of albendazole against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences 34(5): 417–425.

Ngui R., Angal L., Fakhrurrazi S.A., Lian Y.L.A., Ling L.Y., Ibrahim J., Mahmud R. 2012. Differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rural communities in Malaysia. Parasites & Vectors 5(1): 1–7.

Zajac A.M. 2006. Gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants: life cycle, anthelmintics, and diagnosis. The Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 22(3): 529–541.

Houdijk J., Kyriazakis I., Jackson F., Huntley J., Coop R. 2000. Can an increased intake of metabolizable protein affect the periparturient relaxation in immunity against Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep? Veterinary Parasitology 91(1- 2): 43–62.




How to Cite

Prajapati, S., Subedi, J. R., & Ghimire, T. (2024). Intestinal parasites in goats (Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758) in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Annals of Parasitology, 70, 00–00.



Original papers